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Subphylum Vertebrata

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mollusks and annelids


echinoderms and invertabrates

reptiles and birds


   -have a notocord modified into a backbone
   -closed circulatory system
   -complex respiratory system
   -gills, capillary buds inside
   -reproduce sexually and asexually
   -lateral line system
   Two chamber heart, one is the atrium and the other is the ventrical. The atrium receives the blood and the ventrical pumps the blood. 

 -Class Agnatha is the jawless fish, lamprey and hagfish. They have no fins, soft skin, cartilage skeleton and gills. They are ectophermic which is where there body temperature regulates on behaviour. 
 -Class Chondrichthyes has sharks and rays. They have jaws, cartilage skeleton, lateral line system, no swim bladder, paired fins and internal fertilization.
 -Class Osteichthyes has lungfish, lobefin and rayfin fish. This class has a bone skeleton. Lungfish live in deep puddles and will move into a different once theirs has dried up. Lobefin fish use their fins to walk across the bottom of the ocean. Rayfin fiah are fish like trout and pike.

Class Amphibia
   -frogs, newts, salamanders, caecilians
   -have four legs
   -thin moist skin
   -external fertilization
   -nearly all are dependent on water for reproduction
   -three chamber heart
 Metamorphosis (frogs and toads)
   eggs------>tadpole------->adult    tadpoles have gills and two chamber heart, adults have lungs and a three chamber heart
 Nervous System
   They have a well developed brain, a dorsal hollow nerve cord and simple eyes

  Order Annera
Frogs have moist skin and big back legs. Toads' skin is dry on the surface and they have small back legs. They can produce a toxin across the surface of their skin. Neither of them have tails.
  Order Uradula
Salamanders live on land and newts live in the water. They breath through their skin and don't do metamorphosis.
  Order Apoda
Ceacilians have no legs, are blind, and eat earthworms